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Signs of Trouble with Your Orchids
     Orchids speak!
      One of the greatest skills that an orchid collector must develop to be successful in their cultivation is to observe their plants and notice the signs that there may be something wrong with them. 
      Early detection allows for quick intervention without the signs moving towards major damage and even the death of the plant . 
1 -  The color of the leaves
      We are usually concerned about the color of the leaves when they turn yellow, but that's not all. The most common mistake is finding beautiful plants with dark green leaves. Many times the collector even praises a cultivation in which the plants are like this, but make no mistake, there is something wrong. Dark green leaves indicate a lack of light and this means that your plant will have difficulties in flowering and that it is more susceptible to diseases. On the other hand, very yellowish leaves can be indicative of excess light, as a result of chlorophyll degradation.
2 -  Stained leaves
     First make sure that the spots are not characteristic of the plant itself. In some species it is quite common to find dark purple to brown spots. These spots are always stable, not progressive and all leaves have the same pattern without the leaves necessarily falling off. These spots tend to intensify as the light increases.
         Still, spots really can indicate problems.
         These problems range from the bite of sucking insects (mites, thentecoris, thrips...) to necrosis caused by the attack of fungi or bacteria contagion by viruses, it is not uncommon for all options to be associated.

        Deficit or excess of nutrients can also cause characteristic stains, but if your fertilization is balanced, this is a hypothesis that should be left in the background.
         To deepen the question we suggest reading the files of the menu "Pests and Diseases"
Less common are spots caused by sunburn.
3 - Dead roots 
When it comes to dead roots, we can have from the death of the tip to total death. 
A healthy growing root has a green (sometimes pigmented) tip; unfortunately this growing part is very sensitive and sometimes a simple touch, or the shaking of an orchid released from the vase  is enough to stop its growth. 
Another culprit may be the accumulation of fertilizer salts. Fertilizing salts should only be given at the indicated dose, higher doses will cause burning of the roots.   Defensives used in wrong doses should also be considered.
Nematodes (small worms), slugs,  snails and caterpillars can devour whole roots. 
Crustaceans known as "garden bugs" can gnaw the roots and are therefore not welcome in the pot. 
The total death of a root is normally caused by fungal attack, basteria. 
The death of roots will often be denounced by wilted plants. Excess water can kill the roots and this explains why you are watering the plant and it continues to wither. Remember that excess water kills more than the lack. 
4 - Perforated or eaten leaves
In this case, the main hypothesis to be investigated is the presence of caterpillars. When it comes to small plants, they even devour them entirely without leaving a trace. 
The biggest problem is that many caterpillars have the habit of eating only at night and during the day they are hidden inside the vase, giving the impression that they have already left. See more in "Pests and Diseases". 
5 - Leaves and bulbs rotten (rotten) 
This situation is usually more serious, indicating the attack of very aggressive species of fungi and bacteria. However, these fungi and bacteria usually take a ride on environmental factors such as lack of ventilation, low light and high humidity.   This type of problem requires quick intervention and will often lead to the death of the plant. See more in "Pests and Diseases"

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