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Bocashi - the super fertilizer!


       Applying organic matter to plants is a practice known for millennia. It also didn't take long for man to realize that not every organic compound gave the same result in production, leaving then for the study and development of compounds that could produce superior effects. 

      Neste contexto, nasce  no Japão o adubo controlled fermentation called BOCASHI (in Japanese it means "fermented organic matter").  Despite providing nutrients for the Orchid, the most important effect of Bocashi is introduce into the vessel beneficial microorganisms that ferment the organic matter present there, favoring the development of fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixers  that are part of the nutrition process balanced plant and maintenance of plant health. 

     _cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d is to adapt the formula according to the ingredients available in the region, the name bocashi being intended to identify the process by which these ingredients are prepared. 

       Para se fabricar o Bocashi é necessário, in addition to organic matter, some type of biological yeast, which can be captured  in forest soils or commercial products used to obtain fermented foods can be used, or even products known as compost accelerators . 

      These microorganisms are known by the acronymEffective Microorganismsor Effective Microorganisms) 


Types of Effective Microorganisms (EM)


       1) Yeasts- They are used for the production of beers, cachaças, wine, bread yeast, etc. They are EM that need sugars to synthesize vitamins, hormones, enzymes and other bioactive substances that promote root growth. They generate an environment that favors the reproduction of lactic bacteria andactinomycetes


       2) Actinomicetos(ex: Actinomyces sp., Streptomyces sp.): they take advantage of the amino acids produced by photosynthetic bacteria and produce natural antibiotics that control pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Produce substances useful to other beneficial microorganisms, such as free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizae


       3) Bactérias láticas(eg Lactobacillus sp., Pediococcus sp): used in the production of yogurts and vinegar. In the soil, they transform sugars into organic acids that control some harmful microorganisms, such as Fusarium and other fungi that cause rotting of roots and plants. By fermenting organic matter, they produce various nutrient substances for orchids. They are also able to solubilize organic matter that is difficult to decompose, such as lignin and cellulose, and eliminate various harmful effects of non-decomposed organic matter. 


       4) Bactérias fotossintetizadoras ou fototróficas(ex: Rhodopseudomonas palustres): depolluting the environment. They use solar energy  and also feed on substances excreted by the roots, synthesizing vitamins, nutrients, amino acids, nucleic acids, bioactive substances and sugars that favor plant growth and increase the beneficial microbial populations of the substrate, including free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomycetes, and mycorrhizae.


1 ) How to capture Effective Microorganisms (EM)?


      The capture must be made in a healthy forest (which has not been burned in recent years)._cc781905-cc781905-cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_ 5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_

      You will need:_cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-58bad_

-700 g of cooked rice without salt and without oil.

- Plastic or wooden tray.


Place the rice in the tray and place it in contact with the ground (remove leaves and twigs). The removed sticks can be placed on the tray to protect microorganisms. After 10 to 15 days the rice will be_cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58 moldy of different colors. Recolha the pink, blue, yellow, and orange moldy parts to make the EM. Discard the gray, brown and black parts. 


How to activate captured os EM?


       Você vai colocar os EM capturados em um bucket with 10 liters of pure water with 1 liter of cane molasses or 1 kg of brown sugar. Put the mixture in pet bottles and cap well. Every two days it will be necessary to open the bottle to let the gas out. When no more gas comes out, the activated EM is ready.   EM can be kept for up to one year. 



2) Manufacture of Bocashi with KEFIR. 


       Kefir é uma cultura mista de microrganismos usada for production of traditional dairy drink of peoples of Caucasus. O Kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory and digestion-improving activity, among others. To use Bokashi fermentation, a solution of Kefir made from water and brown sugar or molasses.


How to activate Kefir? 


       Multiplique o Kefir até conseguir 3 colheres de grãos de Kefir para cada litro de water, adding more 3 tablespoons of brown sugar (per litre). Place in wide-mouthed containers and cover with a towel to keep out flies and ants, and allow to ferment for a week. (Strain the solution to rescue kefir grains for future use). One liter of Kefir solution is enough to prepare 50Kg of Bokashi. 



3) Making the Bokashi




- 50% to 60% of cereal bran (  of rice; of wheat; of barley, etc.) 

- 35 to 40% of cakes  from oilseeds (  from castor beans; soybeans; sunflower; cotton; palm oil, etc.)

- Up to  15% of vegetable matter (Straws and crushed peels; banana residue, cassava, cornmeal and other crushed grains)

- Up to 3% of materials of animal origin  (Meat and bone meal; fish meal)

- Up to 2% minerals (Limestone; natural phosphate; stone dust)


      How To: 


1 - Mix it all up

2 - moisten with water until the mixture is squeezed and forms a lump. 

3 - Let it ferment: fermentation can be done in two ways: 


3.1 - Aerobic fermentation: 

Pile up the mixture in beds with a maximum height of 30cm, covering with the bran bags themselves. Turn the mixture over every time the temperature rises above 50 degrees. From the fourth day, lower the height of the bed to 10 cm and turn it over every day so that the material is dry, ending with a height of 5 cm on the seventh day and with the material well dry. In 7 days the fertilizer will be ready. 


3.2 Anaerobic fermentation. 

In this case, the mixture is placed inside barrels to avoid contact with air. Ready in 21 days (in hot weather 15 days)



Source: Technical Manual: Bocashi, fermented organic fertilizer, 2013. 












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